Know about Mughal Empire

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Akbar : Mughal Empire 

Mughal Empire


Akbar was one of the greatest emperors of the Mughal dynasty. It was during the reign of Akbar that the rule of the Mughals truly began, for both Babur and Humayun had ruled for extremely short and interrupted periods. Akbar was a minor at the time of his father’s death, and was under the guardianship of Bairam Khan. Soon after succeeding to the throne Akbar had to firmly establish Mughal authority and regain the territories it had lost. His enemies challenged his rule and another historic battle was fought at Panipat, one in which Akbar emerged victorious and firmly established the Mughal power as the dominant power in India.

 Akbar was still under the guardianship of Bairam but now wished to become a full fledged king in his own right. Bairam while providing invaluable service had begun behaving in a high handed manner which had resulted in many enemies. In 1560 Akbar expressed his desire to take over, to Bairam, who reluctantly agreed and prepared to leave the empire. Akbar made the tactical mistake of appointing Pir Muhammad, an enemy of Bairam’s to oversee his move out of Mughal territory. Bairam considered this an insult and rose against Akbar.

 He was however defeated but allowed to continue out of the empire by Akbar, because of the tremendous services he had rendered. Tragically however Bairam was killed by an Afghan who held a personal grudge against him. Luckily his family escaped and his son Abdur Rahim was taken in by Akbar and rose later on to become an important noble of the empire. 

After assuming control from Bairam Akbar did not immediately get full control of the empire. His foster mother Maham Anaga and her son Adam Khan and some of her family were exercising an undue influence on the state. Adam Khan led some conquests which although successful were brutal. Akbar unable to tolerate their actions put Adam Khan to death in 1562. His foster mother died of grief forty days later. Akbar at the young age of fourteen was now finally in control of his empire.Akbar began a process of consolidation and expansion. He extended the empire’s frontiers and they covered almost the entire country, even reaching deep into the south.

He set up the Mughal administration, drawing heavily on the institutions and concepts that Sher Shah had used. Under Akbar the Mughal empire reached its peak, with its influence extending to almost all parts of the country as well as major developments taking place in the arts and the economy. Akbar ruled for a period of 51 years which was the longest reign amongst the Mughal emperors.

Akbar was one of the most able rulers amongst the Mughals and one of the greatest emperors in Indian history. Akbar was a very wise and open minded ruler with a sound character. He was an able administrator as well as a capable soldier. He possesed tremendous courage, often risking his life and was also extremely strong. He was kind and just and despite being a great conqueror he was not cruel to those whom he had defeated. Akbar was not vengeful and usually forgave people who rebelled against him,except in certain cases when it was not possible. Akbar possessed tremendous self control and had excellent manners. He is said to have been very charming and was praised by all those who came into contact with him. 

Akbar had a wise and able courtier called Birbal, and there are many stories about the interactions between Akbar and Birbal, who would often provide sound insights into the various problems the emperor was facing. Akbar was also very popular amongst his subjects who considered him not only the ruler of Delhi but of the entire universe. Akbar also closely monitored his diet and ate moderately. While Akbar did not know how to read and write, one cannot say that he was not a learned man. He had a keen interest in literature and philosophy and was gifted with a brilliant mind and incredible memory. He maintained a large library of books and engaged people to read books to him. His understanding of what he heard was so great that it was said that he could talk so effortlessly on those subjects that one could never get the impression that he was illiterate. Akbar was also a keen patron of art and architecture and many such works flourished in his time.

Akbar was extremely tolerant to religion evident in the fact that he married a Hindu princess. He realized that it was foolish to ill-treat Hindus who formed a majority in his empire. He made significant efforts to treat them at par and soon they too were being appointed to high posts. Akbar treated religion with an extremely open mind and spent a lot of time studying the various beliefs of the different religions. This eventually resulted in the creation of a new religion of his own called Din-I-illahi . This combined features from various religions and stressed on the idea of that regardless of what religion you follow, God is one. Being a supreme believer in universal tolerance, Akbar made no attempt to force people to convert to his religion but tried to appeal to the inner feelings of each person.

Akbar’s last years brought great grief to him. A beloved friend and notable poet Faizi died in 1595. Akbar’s son Salim (later to be known as Jehangir) eager to take over the throne set himself up as an independent king and began plotting to overthrow Akbar. Salim caused much pain to his father when he got another close friend and poet, Abul Fazl murdered. Father and son spent the last couple of years see- sawing between peace and war but finally after Akbar died a natural death, Salim succeeded to the throne. Akbar was a great person and a great king. During his time the country reached a level of prosperity it had not seen and would not see for a long time. Being an able statesmen, he set an example for the other leaders that would follow.

, and there are many stories about the interactions between Akbar and Birbal, who would often provide sound insights into the various problems the emperor was facing. Akbar was also very popular amongst his subjects who considered him not only the ruler of Delhi but of the entire universe. Akbar also closely monitored his diet and ate moderately. While Akbar did not know how to read and write, one cannot say that he was not a learned man. He had a keen interest in literature and philosophy and was gifted with a brilliant mind and incredible memory. He maintained a large library of books and engaged people to read books to him. His understanding of what he heard was so great that it was said that he could talk so effortlessly on those subjects that one could never get the impression that he was illiterate. Akbar was also a keen patron of art and architecture and many such works flourished in his time.

Akbar was extremely tolerant to religion evident in the fact that he married a Hindu princess. He realized that it was foolish to ill-treat Hindus who formed a majority in his empire. He made significant efforts to treat them at par and soon they too were being appointed to high posts. Akbar treated religion with an extremely open mind and spent a lot of time studying the various beliefs of the different religions. This eventually resulted in the creation of a new religion of his own called Din-I-illahi . This combined features from various religions and stressed on the idea of that regardless of what religion you follow, God is one. Being a supreme believer in universal tolerance, Akbar made no attempt to force people to convert to his religion but tried to appeal to the inner feelings of each person.

Akbar’s last years brought great grief to him. A beloved friend and notable poet Faizi died in 1595. Akbar’s son Salim (later to be known as Jehangir) eager to take over the throne set himself up as an independent king and began plotting to overthrow Akbar. Salim caused much pain to his father when he got another close friend and poet, Abul Fazl murdered. Father and son spent the last couple of years see- sawing between peace and war but finally after Akbar died a natural death, Salim succeeded to the throne. Akbar was a great person and a great king. During his time the country reached a level of prosperity it had not seen and would not see for a long time. Being an able statesmen, he set an example for the other leaders that would follow.
Know about Mughal Empire

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